As homesteaders-in-progress, our goal is to do more things for ourselves. The primary goal is to feed ourselves with the fruits, vegetables, meats and wild edibles that we grow or gather ourselves. Toward this end, we recently spent a weekend planting fruit trees of various sorts, blueberry bushes and several varieties of grapes. Though these fruit starts are tiny in the field with their pink ribbon markers, we imagine them feeding our family someday. We see a beautiful orchard blooming in the springtime and heavy with fruit during the summer. We see a grape arbor weighted down with red, green and black clusters of fruit. We see little children eating blueberries from a hedge by the cool of the woods.
Having grown up in the nursery capital of the world, we have seen a whole lot of ornamental trees and shrubs that are grown for sale into nursery centers and home improvement stores all over the country. The proliferation of ornamentals occurs because most folks purchase these trees to beautify their yards. There is certainly nothing wrong with that desire, but we propose that you can have both beauty and bounty when you plant fruit trees and shrubs. It’s double return for the investment!
Why it’s Called Dogwood Winter
Spring can be an unpredictable time of year, with warm, summer-like conditions one day and snow the next. It’s easy to get lulled into a false sense of security that the weather will remain hospitable when — BAM! — a freak cold snap hits and reminds you that winter only ended a few weeks ago.
Much like Indian summer — a period of unseasonable warmth in the middle of autumn — these periods of springtime cold have a name. Actually, they have several names. The little winters in the middle of spring are called variously Dogwood Winter, Blackberry Winter, Locust Winter, Whippoorwill Winter, Redbud Winter, and a few other regional variations. Though predictable, the climb from cold of winter to the warmth of summer and back again is not completely smooth. Small “blips” in the overall pattern reveal noticeable fluctuations that can be observed from year to year. These blips are called singularities in weather lingo. For a singularity to be recognized, it has occur during at least 50% of years. Indian Summer is a long-established singularity. Dogwood Winter is another.
But why is it called Dogwood Winter, or any of those other names, for that matter? Weather forecasters do know there will be a last frost, but it’s not predictable enough to say on what day, so we follow what the oldtimers taught us: a cold snap usually occurs around the time when the dogwoods are in bloom. With the possibility of frost happening during Dogwood Winter, they also knew to wait until after the dogwood bloomed to plant tender vegetables and annuals. My mother said that you get a “winter” every time something white blooms.
Oldtimers also knew that blackberries need a cold snap to set buds on the blackberry canes, so as sure as night follows day, there will be a cold snap when the blackberries bloom, called “Blackberry Winter”. It comes with a somewhat less severe return of a continental polar air mass after the maritime tropical air masses have begun to dominate the weather.
One largely forgotten term for a patch of cold during the springtime is “Stump Winter”. This end-of-spring cold snap marks the last cold spell and derives its name from the use of the last of the fire wood – the stumps – for heat. This is also known as “Whippoorwill Winter”. The whippoorwill migrates from wintering in Mexico to their summer range farther north in late May to early June. There is even another colloquialism for this spring cold snaps, which is: “Linsey-Woolsey Britches Winter,” referring to a type of winter long underwear which could be put away after the last cold snap. Whatever you call it, the last winter is not as cold as the other “winters” but still a bit of cold snap.
Me? I don’t take my coat out of the truck until I need to make room for carrying home 4th of July fireworks…’cause it’s better to have it and not need it than need it and not have it!
Ladders are one of the most used and, consequently, miss-used tools on the homestead. Here are a few safety tips for safe ladder use:
- Are you fit for duty? If you are exhausted, drowsy, sick, etc. you should ask yourself, “Am I in good enough shape to do this chore?” Remember, one slip and you could be out of commission for months and see your money and dreams wither and die. I had an employee fall from a 4′ tall ladder. He fractured his skull and nearly died. He didn’t think he was going to get hurt that day, either.
- Inspect your ladder – no brainer – make sure there are no cracks, everything is tight and secure, etc.
- When you inspect the ladder, ask yourself if you have enough ladder to do the job. Is it sturdy enough to handle the load of yourself, tools, and materials? Is it long / tall enough? Remember, if you are using a step ladder, the top and top step cannot be used to climb or stand upon.
- Set up your ladder on a firm, level surface. If you are using an extension ladder, secure it at the top at a minimum, and the best practice is to secure it top and bottom.
- Use a pull rope instead of carrying tools up the ladder. In this picture my son and I are repairing the barn roof. Instead of carrying the sheets of tin up the ladder, he is tieing them and I am hoisting them. He has taken his gloves off to tie the rope.
- Do not place a ladder on boxes, barrels or other unstable bases to obtain additional height.
- Do not move or shift a ladder while a person or equipment is on the ladder.
- An extension or straight ladder used to access an elevated surface should extend at least 3 feet above the point of support. Do not stand on the three top rungs of a straight, single or extension ladder.The proper angle for setting up a ladder is to place its base a quarter of the working length of the ladder from the wall or other vertical surface.
- Avoid electrical hazards! – Look for overhead power lines before handling a ladder. Avoid using a metal ladder near power lines!
- Never lean a step ladder and use it like an extension ladder.
Practical tips below, but first a philosophy lesson.
As homesteaders go, we are typically an independent lot. Whatever political stripe, we tend to be resourceful and with a drive for self-sufficiency. That usually doesn’t lend itself to embracing many of the myriad of laws that are so pervasive in our culture. In short, we pretty much don’t like anyone sticking their nose in our business.
With that being said, please bear with me as we look a little bit into the government’s efforts to keep us safe on the farm.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration promulgates rules for safety to the tune of thousands of individual and corporate safety mandates. They even have a special section on farm safety – 29 CFR 1928. Whereas the construction industry is only governed by 29 CFR 1926, farming is additionally governed by 29 CFR 1910.
I want to challenge you, though. Don’t think about the oppression inherent in the system, but think why we have the rules. Here are a few reasons:
- Agriculture ranks among the most dangerous industries. Between 2003 and 2011, 5,816 agricultural workers died from work-related injuries in the US.1,2
- In 2011, 570 agricultural workers died from work-related injuries.1 The fatality rate for agricultural workers was 7 times higher than the fatality rate for all workers in private industry; agricultural workers had a fatality rate of 24.9 deaths per 100,000, while the fatality rate for all workers was 3.5.3
- The leading cause of death for farm workers between 1992 and 2009 was tractor overturns, accounting for over 90 deaths annually. The most effective way to prevent tractor overturn deaths is the use of Roll-Over Protective Structures; however in 2006 only 59% of tractors used on farms in the US were equipped with these devices.2
- Every day, about 243 agricultural workers suffer a serious lost-work-time injury. Five percent of these injuries result in permanent impairment.2
- In 2011, the injury rate for agricultural workers was over 40 percent higher than the rate for all workers. Crop production agricultural workers’ injury rates were 5.5 per 100 workers. Animal production agricultural workers’ injury rates were 6.7 per 100 workers. The rate for all workers was 3.8.
How does this apply to you, the small farm homesteader? Refer back to number 4 stated previously. How would your homesteading efforts fair if you were injured or permanently impaired? Your dream, along with your money, might just evaporate before your eyes. So we’re not about the rules and regulations nearly as much as we are about the behaviour that leads to these accidents. Again, safety isn’t about rules, it’s about being able to live our dreams.
Now, for the practical portion of today’s post – farm tractor safety:
- Wear your seatbelt.
- Always try to operate your tractor on the flattest ground possible. Not always an option, though.
- Keep side mounted implements on the uphill side of your tractor.
- Avoid turning on slopes which is, again not always possible. When you do operate on a slope, turn downhill.
- Be extra careful next to ponds and ditches.
- Put your dogs up before cutting hay or bush hogging. We don’t need anymore dogs named “Tripod”!
- Always attach hitches to the draw bar which runs inline with the centerline of the tractor, not the cross draw bar.
- Never start the tractor while standing on the ground. It is a machine and safety mechanisms can fail. One of the most tragic instance of a farm fatality happened to a family in our community. One of the sons of the family tried to start a tractor while standing on the ground. It lurched forward, crushing him to death.
- Tractor rollovers – where to begin on this danger? See this video for a practical guide to not crushing yourself with a tractor rollover: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CnBkGBOFtRc